Discover and update the Python-specific properties in Administration > General Settings > Languages > Python.
Python code is analyzed by default as compatible with python 2 and python 3. Some issues will be automatically silenced to avoid raising False Positives. In order to get a more precise analysis you can specify the Python versions your code supports via the
The accepted format is a comma-separated list of versions having the format "X.Y". Here are some examples:
sonar.python.version=2.7, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9
This parameter can be used in the sonar-project.properties file or the SonarScanner CLI command.
The Python analyzer parses the source code, creates an abstract syntax tree (AST), and then walks through the entire tree. A coding rule is a visitor that is able to visit nodes from this AST.
As soon as the coding rule visits a node, it can navigate its children and log issues if necessary.
Custom rules for Python can be added by writing a SonarQube Plugin and using Python analyzer APIs. Here are the steps to follow:
- Create a standard SonarQube plugin project.
- Attach this plugin to the SonarQube Python analyzer through the
- Add the dependency to the Python analyzer.
- Add the following line in the sonar-packaging-maven-plugin configuration.
- Implement the following extension points:
- Declare the RulesDefinition as an extension in the Plugin extension point.
- Create a class that will hold the implementation of the rule, it should:
- define the rule name, key, tags, etc. with Java annotations.
- declare this class in the
A sample plugin can be found here: python-custom-rules to help you get started.
To explore a part of the AST, override a method from
PythonVisitorCheck. For example, if you want to explore "if statement" nodes, override the
visitIfStatement method that will be called each time an ifStatement node is encountered in the AST.
When overriding a visit method, you must call the super method in order to allow the visitor to visit the children of the node.
To explore a part of the AST, override
PythonSubscriptionCheck#initialize and call
SubscriptionCheck.Context#registerSyntaxNodeConsumer with the
Tree#Kind of node you want to visit. For example, if you want to explore "if statement", you should register to the kind
Tree#Kind#IF_STATEMENT and then provide a lambda that will consume a
SubscriptionContext to act on such nodes.
You can use the
PythonCheckVerifier#verify method to test custom checks. Don't forget to add the testkit dependency to access this class from your project:
You should end each line having an issue with a comment in the following form:
Comment syntax is described here.
When the loading of analyzers is optimized (see Improving performance), SonarQube will only download analyzers and third-party plugins for the detected languages before running an analysis.
When creating custom plugins, to prevent errors when projects are analyzed, you must use the
requiredForLanguages property in your plugin's
pom.xml file to specify the languages your plugin supports. Without this property, your plugin will be executed unconditionally during analysis, even when its language-specific dependencies are unavailable. See Plugin basics for details on this behavior and the